Emily Ingham, nee Hinton
During the early 19th century, when Sicily was briefly a British Protectorate, the flourishing colony of british merchants were able to attend church services at the British Embassy. After 1814 they relied on chaplains from visiting warships. Only in 1840 were regular services of the Church of England celebrated in Palermo. They were held in the large painted salon of Palazzo Lampedusa, in Via Butera, the residence of John Goodwin, Consul for Sicily for over 32 years. When John Goodwin moved to Palazzo Campofranco, the services were transferred there too.
In 1871 cousins Joseph Whitaker Sr. and Benjamin Ingham Jr. announced their intention to build at their expense a church in which English Christians, whether resident or visiting Palermo, could attend Church of England services. Benjamin Ingham Jr. donated the land in front of Palazzo Ingham (now Hotel delle Palme) to be used as the site for the new church. However, Benjamin Ingham Jr. died in 1872 before the work on the church started. His widow Emily Ingham continued the work and later in 1872 building commenced and the foundations were laid.
On 19th December 1875 the Holy Cross was opened for Divine Worship. The church was designed by William Barber, assisted later by Henry Christian, Joseph Whitaker’s son-in-law. The organ was made by Walker’s of London, and was first played in October 1903. It was rebuilt in 2003 to celebrate its centenary.
On the death of Joseph Whitaker patronage of the church passed to his son, Joshua Whitaker, who dedicated himself to its administration. On the death of Joshua Whitaker in 1926 the trusteeship of the church passed to his brother and then subsequently to his niece Delia, who in 1962 as the last surviving Trustee. The church was then given to the Gibraltar Diocesan Trust - the Diocese in Europe.
During the 2nd World War, after the invasion of Sicily in 1943, the Church was used by the U.S. Forces. In the register of services there are notes which show that, on several occasions, General Patton was present. One finds a memorial in the church, given by General Patton, commemorating those Americans killed in Sicily during the war.
Today the church continues as one of the stable chaplaincies of the Diocese in Europe under the authority of the bishops of Europe, Robert Innes and David Hamid. It's identity, like many continental chaplaincies, has shifted with changes in English history and the Church of England since the 1800s. The community continues to serve English Anglican Christians, but also Christians of various backgrounds and traditions. In the 21st century Holy Cross represents a rich tapestry of identities, all of which are welcomed. Echoing this fact Bishop David Hamid has recently observed that, "The Diocese in Europe, even though part of the Church of England, is not very English at all. In fact, it is a particular privilege as a bishop to be able to accompany congregations as they grow and develop in response to the challenges of multicultural and multinational ministry."
"The Diocese in Europe [today], even though part of the Church of England, is not very english at all. In fact, it is a particular privilege as a bishop to be able to accompany congregations as they grow and develop in response to the challenges of multicultural and multinational ministry."
Bishop David Hamid
In the heart of Palermo there is a small British architectural treasure: Holy Cross Church, a building with important art objects, but unknown to many residents of Palermo. The architecture and the decorations are unique and a charming combination between artistic simplicity and richness. On one hand, the exterior and the vertical architectural objects go back to the Gothic style typical in Northern Europe; on the other hand, the golden mosaics in the apse are of Byzantine inspiration which is often seen in Sicily.
Holy Cross Church is located in via Roma (on the corner with via Mariano Stabile), and it is the centre of religious activities for the English speaking community of Palermo, as well as the memorial chapel of the Whitaker and Ingham families. In fact the church was built between 1871 and 1875 thanks to Joseph Whitaker and Benjamin Ingham junior, who wished to construct at their expense a church in which to worship according to the rites of the Church of England. They were the heirs of Benjamin Ingham senior, a British gentleman who had settled in Sicily and built a small economic fortune from Marsala wine. The Whitaker-Inghams left signs of an innovative architectural culture and landscaping art in west Sicily, especially in Palermo, and their influence is still well visible in various buildings of the city.
Returning to Holy Cross Church, the Whitakers and Inghams were determined to give an English imprint on the building by importing doors, windows, stained-glass and flooring from London firms. At the same time, they didn’t forget their new homeland, as was stated by Tina Whitaker, Joseph’s wife, in 1935: “… the architectural style of the church, being Arab-Norman, is very relevant to Palermo, with its brilliant mosaics so characteristic of that period of Sicilian history when Normans lived under Arab influence …”.
The project was assigned to the London based architect William Barber and work started in 1872 lead by Colonel Henry Yule. The church was opened on the 19th of December 1875 and is now a Chaplaincy of the Diocese in Europe, Church of England. The church’s floor plan is Romanesque with three naves, while the various ogee stained-glass windows, the large rose window and the tall spire bell tower are inspired by Gothic architecture. The marble and the stones used to build the church come from Palermo, Carrara, Devonshire, Cornwall and Derbyshire.
The three windows on the main elevation of the West wall symbolize the Blessed Virgin Mary, St. Mary Magdalene and St. John, those who were witnesses at the foot of the holy Cross. In the large rose window above them is figured the Adoration of the Lamb by angels. All the stained-glass windows were designed in London by Lavers, Barraud & Westlake and built by Cox & Sons. Several windows were damaged during World War II, some of which were redone while others replaced with plain yellowish glass (like the side windows in the apse).
The focal point of the church is the marvellous apse, with the fascinating decorations designed by the famous British architect Francis Cranmer Penrose, and realised by Ditti Salviati of Venice. Within a series of trefoil niches there are mosaics of twelve Apostles (with St. Paul instead of St. Simon) and in the centre the resurrected Christ being worshipped by angels. A frieze runs around the apse’s walls and the inscription reads “Him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out”. High up in the apse are five stained-glass windows representing the trial, crucifixion, resurrection and ascension of Jesus and the pouring out the Spirit at Pentecost. The ceiling of the apse is also decorated with golden mosaics representing the four evangelists with Christ in the centre and placed below four angels are the four doctors of the Western Church - St. Ambrose, St. Jerome, St. Augustine and St. Gregory the Great. Interesting are the heads on the corbels supporting the marble pillars around the apse, which portray figures important to the English Church and Reformation: St. Augustine of Canterbury, Wycliffe, Cranmer, Edward VI, Lord Burghley and Queen Elizabeth I. The four capitals at either side of the reredos behind the altar represent, from left to right, England with the rose, Ireland with the shamrock, Sicily and Wales with the small iris, and Scotland with the thistle.
On various walls of the church are numerous brass memorial plaques in memory of the Whitaker and Ingham families, their descendants and employees.